The digital transformation has long since arrived in industry. Under the
buzzwords "Industry 4.0", "IIoT" and "machine-to-machine communication", the networking of machines, systems and products forges ahead. While machines and devices exchange data on field level and control level using the
relevant protocols, the direct path to the higher levels of the automation
pyramid remains blocked. This is because it is neither possible for a fieldbus to scale all the way to the cloud nor can protocols such as MQTT communicate with the field level. The OPC UA framework (Unified Architecture) closes this gap.