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Misura distributiva di temperatura con sensore a fibra ottica

I sensori di temperatura distribuiti a fibra ottica (DTS) possono, simultaneamente ed affidabilmente, monitorare una distribuzione lineare di temperatura per qualche decina di Km con accuratezza fino a 1 metro. In questo modo è possibile superare le limitazioni dei sensori puntuali (termocoppie e termoresistenze) nel soddisfare le esigenze in materia di sicurezza (rivelamento di incendi e perdite) e monitoraggio che negli ultimi anni sono diventate sempre più sentite e necessarie in diversi ambi

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Atti di convegni o presentazioni contenenti case history
mcT Petrolchimico Milano novembre 2015 workshop

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da Alessia De Giosa
mcT Petrolchimico Milano 2015Segui aziendaSegui




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Milano, 25 novembre 2015 Gli atti dei convegni e più di 4.000 contenuti su www.verticale.net <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 1 - Distributed Temperature Sensor - Capabilities Max Veronesi Product Marketing Manager Process Control & Safety Systems Yokogawa Italy <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 2 - DTS Basics
Backscattered <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 4 - Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS) Principle Measurement T1 T2 T3 T4 '''. DTS Instrument (interrogator) Distributed Measurement - 1m spatial resolution
Measurement of 50 km '' Optical fiber = 50,000 sensors! Backscattered light provides temperature at every 1m
Standard multi-mode optical fiber

The fiber optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) method using the Raman-effect has been developed at Southampton University in England, UK in the early 80''s. <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 5 - Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS) Backscattered light laser detection laser pulse Optical fiber Scattered light spectrum Temperature dependent Raman Anti-Stokes Raman Stokes Frequency shift Spectrum Principle Light is backscattered from natural anomalies within the fiber
This happens at all points within the fiber
Range gating allows specific sections along the fiber''s length to be examined

<Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 6 - DTS Measurement Principle © annotation by SensorTran Spectrum Principle <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 7 - Temperature Resolution Longer the Fiber Length Less accurate temperature measurement Distance Resolution Longer the Measurement time More accurate temperature measurement <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 8 - Advantage of DTS When there are a large number of sensors to be placed A single optical fiber can replace many point sensors When there is no a priori knowledge of sensor placement Not always possible to determine the correct location/position for temperature sensor When electrical temperature monitoring is impractical Situation where there is a large amount of electromagnetic noise When electrical temperature monitoring is unsafe fiber optic does not present a spark hazard can be a significant safety advantage.
<Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 9 - DTS(Distributed Temperature Sensor) Other method(TCs, RTDs' ' Simple system configuration ' Low implementation cost ' Complex system configuration ' High implementation cost ' Distributed temperature Profile without blank area ' Point base temperature measurement ' Lots of blank area to monitor ' Explosion proof ' Non Electromagnetic inductive Temperature Recorder Temperature Sensor Fiber Optic cable DTSX Co nf igur
atio
n Featu
res DTS v.s. Single Point sensors DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensor) Simple system configuration Low implementation cost Distributed temperature Profile without blank area Explosion proof Non Electromagnetic inductive

Other method(TCs, RTDs' Complex system configuration High implementation cost Point base temperature measurement
Lots of blank area to monitor
<Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 10 - DTSX Applications
<Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 11 - Borehole Heel Temperature Monitor (Steam Chest formation, Breakthrough) Flow Monitor (Joule-Thomson Effect) (Oil or Gas Flow at each Zone) Steam Oil DTS Downhole Applications <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 13 - Steam Production Well Injection Well Power Plant DTS Production Well monitoring Geothermal Reservoir DTS for Geothermal Well '' Application Schematic DTS monitors the reservoir status via the Injection Well Geothermal Well Monitoring <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 15 - '' LNG Terminals LNG Tanker LNG Tank Vaporizer Governor Gas Tank '' Offloading Pipe Initial Cool Down Monitoring and Leak Detection
' Reducing Start Up time ' Preventing Gas Leak '' Bottom of Tank Temperature Monitoring
' Preventing Ground Freezing '' Buried Pipe Leak Detection
' Preventing Gas Leak Applications: LNG <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 16 - Splicing Box CH2 CH1 DTSX200 Inner Tank Outer Tank Detecting the leakage Optical Fiber Cable
'with SUS tube) DTS can identify small leakage LNG Tank leak detection 16 <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 18 - Applications: Cable rack and cable tunnel installations Power Transmission Lines: ' Power Efficiency (power line temperature monitoring) 'Smart Grid' ' Power Monitoring Cable
' Overheating of cable''s maximum operating tempurature

<Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 19 - Quick detection of small leakage events and monitoring of the pipeline temperature profile.

Pipelines such as LNG, LPG, ammonia, ethylene create
cold zones which can be easily detected when leaks occur. Pipeline Leak Detection <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 20 - Background '' Hot Spot monitoring of Hot air stove and Metal runner Fire Bricks is required to prevent incidents and to optimize repair interval Customer Merit '' No Dead spot: Optic fiber can monitor temperature for wide area
'' Prompt Action: Heated Location Detection in short time (<10sec/Ch.)
'' Easy to integrate with DCS/SCADA: Monitor Distributed Temperature data jd-met.com Metal runner Hot Spot Monitoring <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 21 - http://www.hipj.net/activity/2010/01/091229.html Fire Detection (Prevention) for Conveyor System Application '' Detection of heat build-up/fire along industrial conveyor systems prior to fire outbreak (woodchips) Customer benefits '' No Dead spot: Only one optic fiber can monitor temperature along the Conveyor '' Prompt Action: Heated Location Detection in short time (<10sec/Ch.)
'' Prevention damage: One of Paper Manufacture lost production <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 22 - Fire Detection for Cable rack system Application '' Detection of heat build-up/fire in cable tray or rack system Customer benefits '' No Dead spot: Only one optic fiber can monitor temperature along the cables. '' Monitoring Wide Area: Multi Channel Monitoring by using Optical Switch
'' Prompt Action: Heated Location Detection in short time (<10sec/Ch.)
http://www.nssmc.com http://www.okumadenki.com/ <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 23 - Applications: Fire Detection Fire Detection - Industrial Facilities
- Tunnels
- Structures & Buildings
<Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 24 - Fiber optical cable <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 25 - Advantage of the Optical Fiber Cable Immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and electrical discharge (lightning)
Passive operation, intrinsically safe.
Water and corrosion resistant
Excellent resolution and range
Rugged, small size and light weight
Absolute measurement
Low signal loss, sensors may be interrogated for many kilometres
Signal conditioning equipment has much smaller foot print Fiber Cable The sensor <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 26 - Optical Fiber Cable Optical Connector E2000/APC
Optical Fiber: 50/125μm GI quartz fiber
Wavelength: 980nm band/ 1552nm band
Measuring temperature range fiber Low type: ' -200 deg. C
High Type: ' +500 deg. C Optical Fiber is protected by Protection Tube <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 27 - Materials Conditions Application Examples Stainless(S30400) Indoors normal atmosphere Fresh water conditions Fire Detection ' Building or Tunnel' Stainless(S31600) Outdoors normal atmosphere Fresh water conditions Vessel Hot Spot Incoloy825(N0825) Salt, H2S and Electric Corrosion Oil & Gas, Geothermal or Pipelines Optical Fiber Cable Example of Protection Tube <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 28 - DTSX Overview
<Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 29 - Yokogawa DTSX Lineup <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 30 - DTSX Design <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 31 - DTSX Performance Spatial Resolution: 1m
Sampling Interval: 10cm, 20cm, 50cm, 1m
Temperature resolution: 0.2 '' (3km, 10min) (DTSX200)
Temperature resolution: 0.03'' (10Km , 10min ) (DTSX3000)
Distance Range:6km, 10km, 16km, 20km, 30km 50km
Non-Volatile on-board Memory data storgae (100 traces)

Low Power Consumpotion (full operating Range)
Operation 10W, Standy-by 2W (DTSX200)
Operation 16W, Standy-by 2W (DTSX3000) Performance Specifications <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 33 - DTSX3000 Temperature Resolution Estimated Temp. accuracy Distan ce (km) Minutes 1 2 3 5 10 12 16 20 25 30 40 50 0.5 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.09 0.08 0.13 0.24 0.31 0.55 2.2 7.1 1 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.06 0.06 0.09 0.17 0.18 0.32 1.6 5.1 5 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.08 0.08 0.14 0.7 2.3 10 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.10 0.5 1.6 30 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.3 0.9 60 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.2 0.7 <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 34 - Power Module - 10-30V DC - 24V DC - 100V-120V AC - 220V-240V AC DTS Module - 1 x TCP/IP - 3 x RS-232C Optical Switch Module - 2 channels - 4 channels - 16 channels DTSX200 & DTSX3000 Rack Layout Rack Configuration <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 35 - DTSX Lineup 19 inch compact rack design
Compact; Dimension: 483(W)'133(H)'169(D) mm
Modular design/ Modular optical switch Selection
Industrial design -40 to +65°C (2 & 4 ch)
Humidity 20-80% RH. Non-condensing
Low weight and footprint (weight 2,5 kg) Compact Industrial Design Approvals Compliance ATEX Type 'n'
CSA Type 'n'
FM : Class I, Div 2, Gps A, B, C, D T4
CSA : Class I, Div 2, Gps A, B, C, D T4 <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 36 - DTSX Modular design Alarm Management Integrated Full Alarm management Module inside
30 alarm section to define
Combination of differed alarm types
Alarms available in Process environment
Fully Integrated in DTSX Alarm Section High, Low, Rise, Fall & Difference <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 37 - DTSX Modular design Alarm Management Integrated Alarm Section High, Low, Rise, Fall & Difference <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 38 - DTSX Modular design Measurement Single-ended measurement is simpler than double-ended measurement but requires correction for the differential sensor optical fiber loss between the Stokes light and anti-Stokes light of the Raman scatter. In single-ended measurement, temperature measurement resolution depends on sensor optical fiber loss and is thus comparatively better near the DTSX200 and worse at the far end. <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 39 - DTSX Modular design Measurement In double-ended measurement, temperature measurement resolution degrades at both the far and near ends. Double-ended measurement is somewhat more complex than single-ended measurement but does not require correction for the differential sensor optical fiber loss between the Stokes light and anti- Stokes light of the Raman scatter The DTSX200 performs sensor optical fiber loss calibration at each measurement so the impact on temperature measurement of any sensor optical fiber darkening or any change in sensor optical fiber loss during temperature measurement is minimized. <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 40 - Real time temperature profiles HTTPS PUT/POST (Secured Protocols)
SFTP (Secured Protocols)

Mobus/TCP Real time temperature data
Alarm data
Diagnostic data Openness Connectivity <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 41 - Openness Connectivity LAS 2.0 (Log ASCII Standard) CSV Export
WITSML 1.3.1.1 (Wellsite Information Transfer Standard Markup Language)
Openness Connectivity <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 44 - Integrate Programmable Logic Controller STARDOM PLC: Programmable Logic Controller '' Control with programmable logic
'' Simple or Sequential Process
'' Interface with DTSX (Tempurature data & alarm data)
'' Embedded I/O
Openness Integrated PLC Temperature Info Pressure, flow, temperature relay, buttons indicators'. <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 50 - Connectivity <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 51 - '''''''''' '''''''''' Joint Box DTSX Integration with Data Acquisition solutions HSX10 ModBus TCI/IP Approach Cable Optic fiber Sensor Temp. change Configuration & Visualization <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 52 - '''''''''' '''''''''' Joint Box DTSX Integration with Control solutions ModBus TCI/IP Approach Cable Optic fiber Sensor Temp. change Configuration & Visualization <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 53 - Easy to integrate with our Control Systems FAST/TOOLS trend (Native Driver Available with buffering) STARDOM display CENTUM HIS DTSX Integration <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 54 - Two type of information trends inside FAST/TOOLS '' Depth (x) vs Temperature (y)
'' Time (x) vs Temperature (y) Openess Connectivity : FAST/TOOLS Dataserver <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 55 - Thank you for your attention <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 57 - Configuration Software
<Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 58 - DTSX Control Visualization Software Easy Software Configuration
The purpose of this Control Visualization Software is:
'' Temperature Measurement
'' Checking the Measurement Results
'' Calibration


Configuration Software <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 59 - DTSX Control Visualization Software Control Mode ' Control Temperature Measurement
' Acquire Temperature Data Files
' Display the Data in Charts Monitoring Mode ' Acquire Temperature Data Files
' Display the Data in Charts Trace Mode ' Load Temperature Data Files Calibration Mode ' Detect Fiber Connection Points
' Enter Fiber Parameters
' Correct for Fiber Loss <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 60 - DTSX Control Visualization Software Alarm Window Message Window Solution Tree Window Viewer Chart Window <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 61 - DTSX Control Visualization Software Trace mode: 3D Surface and 2D Line Charts '' Surface chart, adjacent data points along the X-axis and Z-axis are joined by planes. '' Line chart, adjacent data points along the X-axis are joined by a line. Surface Chart Line Chart <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 62 - Test Results <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 64 - DTSX3000 performance is 20x to 100x better from DTSX200. DTSX performance DTSX200 DTSX3000 <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 65 - DTSX Performance during Ambient Temperature Cycle DTSX200 Thermometer Optical Fiber Test Setup Chamber -45 to +70 degC Temp Chamber 22.5degC DTS Settings 6km Range, 1m Sampling Res., 10min. Measurement, Temp at 100m Position. -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Time [hour] A mb ie n t te mp e ra tu re [ de g C] 19.0 20.0 21.0 22.0 23.0 24.0 25.0 26.0 M e as u re d te mp e ra tu re [ de g C] Ambient temperature Measured temperature Temperature Deviations all fall within ± 0.6 degC Designed for Harsh Environment Operation <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 66 - 0.01 0.1 1 10 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Distance [m] T em perat ure res ol ut io n (1') [ deg C ] Color Temp. of DTSX200 Blue -45deg C Green +23deg C Orange +70deg C Pink Specification DTSX200 Temperature Resolution 3x''s better than Specification Exceptional Measurement Quality
Chamber 20 C constant Chamber +45, +23 & +70 C Temperature Resolution Data vs Ambient Temperature <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 68 - Conclusion <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 69 - Succes in European regio Ammonia Pipeline -Leak Detection '' OCI, Netherlands LNG Pipeline '' Leak Detection '' Skangass, Norway Subsea Pipeline '' Leak detection '' GE Oil & Gas, UK Infrastructure Ageing Management '' Cementys, France Well Monitoring '' Tendeka, UK Hot Spot Management '' TIMCAL, Belgium <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 70 - Succes in European regio Ammonia Pipeline -Leak Detection '' Yara, Italy Environment Monitoring - Glacial '' Aberystwyth University, UK Well Monitoring '' Omnisens, Swiss Sewer Renovation / Cable Monitoring '' OSSCAD, Germany <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 71 - DTSX Key Messages Reliable Performance Compact Industrial Design Approvals Compliance Performance Specifications Resolution Specifications <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 75 - Thank you for your attention
The new generation of DTS


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