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Le potenzialita’ della tecnologia CFB nella combustione e nei processi di gassificazione della biomassa

(in lingua inglese)

Biomass gasification for SNG production.
A Comparison of Biomass Steam Generator Technologies
Biomass Properties
World’s Largest pure solids Biomass Fired Power Plant
Biomass gasification with SNG
Technology review – Gasification
Technology review – VESTA
Biomass-to-SNG: Case study

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Atti di convegni o presentazioni contenenti case history
mcTER Forest giugno 2015 Riscaldamento a biomassa: soluzioni, tecnologie e prospettive

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mcTER Forest 2015Segui aziendaSegui




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Estratto del testo
Gli atti dei convegni e più di 5.000 contenuti su www.verticale.net Termotecnica Industriale Pompe di Calore Termotecnica Industriale Pompe di Calore © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Amec Foster Wheeler: Potentials of CFB technology in biomass
combustion and gasification processes Convegno mcTER Forest, 25 Giugno 2015 F. Fazi, Power Proposal Manager 2 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Agenda ' Amec Foster Wheeler introduction ' Biomass combustion in CFB boiler ' Biomass gasification for SNG production © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Amec Foster Wheeler introduction 4 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Who we are ' Headquartered in London ' Listed on ' London Stock Exchange (AMFW) ' New York Stock Exchange (AMFW) >40,000
people c$9bn revenues >50 countries >150 years of history 5 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Who we are Markets ' Oil & Gas ' Clean Energy ' Environment &
Infrastructure ' Mining Offerings ' Consultancy ' Engineering ' Project management ' Project delivery ' Ongoing asset support ' Specialised power
equipment Leveraging our skills around the world 6 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Who we are 48% 24% 20% 8% Americas Northern Europe & CIS Africa, Middle East, Asia & Southern Europe Global Power Group Add a segment
and caption if
required. Revenues by market Figures based on 2013 proforma Revenues by business unit 56% 27% 9% 8% Oil & Gas Clean Energy / Power Environment & Infrastructure Mining 7 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Where we are A global network of talented teams © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Biomass combustion in CFB boiler 9 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 We have been very active in Biomass Technology ' We have Supplied a Wide Range of Biomass Technologies ' 77 CFB Boilers ' 88 Bubbling Boilers ' 184 Grate Boilers ' 8 Biomass Gasifier ' 26 Biomass Boiler Conversions ' We Have Delivered Some of the Largest 100% Biomass Units in the World ' 190 MWe Polaniec unit can burn up to 20% Agro ' 56 MWe Fibrominn Turkey Liter Unit in the US ' 50 MWth Biomass Gasifiers in Europe ' We have advanced Biomass Technology ' Increased Agro Fuel Range and Steam Conditions ' Developed Biomass Gasification Technology for
BTL applications - Demolition Wood - Recycled Wood - Saw Dust - Forest Residue - Bark - Sludges - Peat - Paper Waste - Plastic - Bagasse - Rice Husk - Straw - Wood Residue - Wood Chips - Hog Fuel - Olive Pits - Coffee Grounds - Waste Fiber - Chicken & Turkey
Litter - Agricultural Waste - Sun Flower Seed
Hulls - MSW & RDF - Broom Corn Refuse - Hogged Plywood Amec Foster Wheeler Biomass Fuel Experience 10 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Furnace Gas Velocity 8-10 ft/sec 15-30 ft/sec 4-10 ft/sec 15-22 ft/sec Fuel Feed Size 1-1/2'x 0 1/100'x 0 1/2'x 0 1/2'x 0 Furnace Temp. 2000-2500°F 2200-2800°F 1500-1700°F 1500-1700°F 1093-1371oC 1204-1538oC 816-927oC 816-927oC GRATE FIRING PULVERIZED FIRING FLUIDIZED-BED FIRING (FIXED BED) (ENTRAINED BED) BFB CFB A Comparison of Biomass Steam Generator Technologies 11 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 AGRO BIOMASS H E A T IN G V A L U E , M J /k g 20 35 0 1 2 5 5 10 10 PEAT BARK WOOD BIOMASS DEMOLITION
WOOD
CHIP- BOARD POLYOLEFIN PLASTICS (PE, PP, PC...) COLORED OR PRINTED PLASTICS, CLEAN COLORED OR PRINTED MIXED PLASTICS REF PLY- WOOD PVC RDF MSW PVC MIXED PLASTICS PAPER &
WOOD
BROWN COAL,
LIGNITE PETROLEUM COKE CHICKEN
LITTER
DEINKING
SLUDGE
SEWAGE
SLUDGE
BIO &
FIBER
SLUDGE
REF
PELLETS
WOOD &
PLASTIC
S
COW
MANURE
REF I
COMMERCIAL &
INDUSTRIAL
BITUMINOUS
COAL ANTRACITE
COAL H E A T IN G V A L U E , M J /k g 20 35 0 1 2 5 5 10 10 WOOD BIOMASS DEMOLITION
WOOD
CHIP- BOARD POLYOLEFIN PLASTICS (PE, PP, PC...) COLORED OR PRINTED PLASTICS, CLEAN COLORED OR PRINTED MIXED PLASTICS REF - PVC RDF MSW PVC CONSUMER REFII MIXED PLASTICS PAPER &
WOOD
PETROLEUM COKE MULTIPLE CHALLENGES SOME CHALLENGES STANDARD DESIGN CHICKE
LITTER
DEINKING
SLUDGE
SEWAGE
SLUDGE
FIBER
SLUDGE
REF
PELLETS
WOOD &
PLASTICS
COW
MANUR
REF I
COMMERCIAL &
INDUSTRIAL
Oil Shale Estonian Mid-East/ N. African Peat w/
High
Ca,
Peat w/ High Ca, Cl, Br BITUMINOUS
COAL ANTRACITE
COAL BIO & BROWN COAL,
LIGNITE PEAT BARK WOOD PLY Grate Combustion Fluidized Bed Combustion PC Fuel Range CFB Fuel Range Amec Foster Wheeler has a Wide Solid Fuel Experience 12 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Biomass Properties Peat Saw Dust Recycled Wood Timber Pellets Timber Chips Grass RDF Bagasse Straw Moisture % 50 45-60 25 5-10 20-50 13 25 8 12 MJ/kg 9.3 6-10 14 17 7.5-13.9 17 13 16 14.7 Btu/lbm 4000 2580- 4300 6020 7310 3225- 5975 7310 5590 6875 6320 Bulk Density kg/m3 340 300-350 300-400 650 130-280 650 650 650 650 Bulk Density lb/ft3 21 19-22 19-25 41 8-17 40 40 40 40 MWh/m3 0.9 0.45-0.7 1.3 3 0.55 3 2.3 2.9 2.7 Ash % ka 5.1 0.4-0.5 5 0.9 0.4-5.3 3 12 6 7 S % ka 0.22 <0.05 0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0.1 0.1-0.5 <0.05 0.01-0.03 CI % ka 0.02-0.06 <0.03 0.1 <0.03 <0.05 0.3 0.3-1.2 <0.03 0.1-0.8 Alkalis mol/MWh 1.0 3.2 6.1 7.8 7.8 11 24 29 60 S/CI 6 0.7 2.2 1.9 1.9 1.2 0.7 0.5 0.4 13 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Technology Fuels Size (MWe) Circulating Fluid Bed Demolition & Recycled Wood, Saw Dust, Forest Residue,
Bark, Sludges, Peat, RDF, Paper Waste, Plastic, Bagasse,
Rice Husk, Straw 4-190 Bubbling Fluid Bed Bark, Wood Residue & Waste, Forest Residue, Saw Dust,
Sludge, Peat, Recovered Fuel, Wood Chips, Hog Fuel,
Olive Pits, Coffee Grounds, Rice Husk, Waste Fiber 2-62 Grate Chicken & Turkey Litter, Agricultural Waste, Wood & Wood
Waste, Wood Residue, Bark, Peat, Bagasse, Sun Flower
Seed Hulls, Coffee Grounds, Muni-Refuse, Hog Fuel,
Veneer, Sawdust, Broom Corn Refuse, Hogged Plywood 1-56 Note: Units listed fire biomass and waste as primary fuel. Some units also fire fossil fuels as secondary fuels.
Capacity range based on 100% primary fuel firing. Amec Foster Wheeler is a Proven Supplier of Biomass Boilers 14 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 World''s Largest pure solids Biomass Fired Power Plant P K E -L agizsa ' World''s Largest pure solids Biomass Fired Power Plant ' 80% wood chips ' & 20% Agro ' 447MWth, 535/535ºC, 127/20 bar(a) ' Re-powering from Coal to Biomass ' Customer: GFD Suez Energia Polska S.A ' Contract Award 2/2010 ' Commercial operation 11/2012 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Biomass gasification for SNG production 16 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Why biomass gasification' Why SNG' 25/06/2015 ' Introduction: why biomass and SNG' Combined Cycle Chemical Production Methanation Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Hot Water/Steam Desalinated Water Electric Power Substitute Natural Gas
(SNG) Naphtha Diesel Jet Fuel LPG Wax, lubes Hydrogen Industrial Chemicals Methanol/Ethanol/DME/Olefins Acetic Acid, Acetic Anhydride Fertilizers (Ammonia, Urea, Ammonium, Nitrate) Carbon Dioxide EDC, VCM, PVC Syngas Biomass Gasification ' SNG: a practical pathway to final users ' Easy connection of production plants to existing NG networks 17 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Plant overview 25/06/2015 Main process blocks BIOMASS SNG ASU Feedstock preparation Syngas cooling Treatment & Conditioning Methanation Gasification Tar Removal Utilities STEAM/POWER/CW,etc. O 2 CO 2 AG 18 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Technology review - Gasification 25/06/2015 ' Gasification: Amec Foster Wheeler CFB Gasifier ' 11 gasifiers built in 1981-2008 ' Readiness to offer plants for over 100
MWth air-blown applications for
various wood and waste based fuels
' Readiness to offer pressurized
oxygen-steam blown gasifiers up to
~300 MW for biorefinery applications
with wood based fuels
' Process conditions according to fuels
and applications
Long History (originally developed end 70''s/beginning 80''s) Recent commercial applications New developments in progress 19 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Technology review - Gasification 25/06/2015 ' Gasification: Varkaus 12 MWth O2-H2O Demo plant and 5 MWth slip stream 20 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Technology review - Gasification 25/06/2015 ' Tar removal: Features of TAR removal processes Process Advantages Disadvantages Risk Aqueous
Scrubbing Good efficiency
Smooth and trouble-free operation Tars pass from gas to
liquid phase High Capex for WWT Light tars in the clean syngas Thermal
Cracking ' Complete removal
' Chemical energy remains in syngas Soot formation High Capex
Low thermal efficiency (product used to provide
heat) None Catalytic
Cracking ' Potential complete removal
' Chemical energy remains in syngas
' Composition of product gas can be adjusted Soot formation
Catalyst consumption and
cost
Catalyst disposal due to Ni Coke formation
and catalyst
deactivation
Low references Oil
Scrubbing ' Stability and availability
' Chemical energy remains in syngas (tars recycle) ' High efficiency Scrubber/Stripper to remove
NH 3, HCl, H2S High level of filtration at high
temperature Naphtalene in
the clean
syngas: test
required 21 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Technology review - VESTA 25/06/2015 ' Methanation: Available Technologies The recycle of CH 4 product to syngas is the standard process. Dilute the CO concentration with CH 4 22 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Technology review - VESTA 25/06/2015 ' Methanation: VESTA Technology The Amec Foster Wheeler VESTA SNG process uses CO 2 and water to control the heat of reaction. 23 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Technology review - VESTA 25/06/2015 ' Methanation: VESTA Technology Highlights ' No recycle of CH4 product to the syngas ' Dilute with CO2 ' Dilute with Water ' Dilution with CO2 and Water - No Recycle Stream ' Temperature can not exceed 550 °C - No uncontrolled reaction possible ' Flexibility of syngas composition - No need for sour gas shift (SGS) 24 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Technology review - VESTA 25/06/2015 ' Methanation: VESTA Pilot Plant Amec Foster Wheeler has signed a cooperation agreement with Clariant
International AG (''Clariant') and Wison Engineering Ltd (''Wison Engineering')
to build a pilot plant to demonstrate the Amec Foster Wheeler VESTA Substitute
Natural Gas (SNG) technology. The pilot plant: ' Designed for a production capacity of 100 Nm3/h of SNG and includes all
reactors and control system in order to completely demonstrate a real
plant in addition to the verification of the chemical reactions; ' Erected in Nanjing, China, ' Started up in July 2014; 100% of SNG production, at Chinese natural gas
grid specification, reached, and the plant as well as the catalyst
performance perfectly in line with expectations 25 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Technology review - VESTA 25/06/2015 ' Methanation: VESTA Pilot Plant 26 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Biomass-to-SNG: Case study 25/06/2015 ' Case study: Biomass to SNG ' Main Input Data Outlet thermal power (SNG): 200 MWth (or 21,000 Nm3/h) ' Plant Configuration Amec Foster Wheeler CFB Gasifier
pressurized and oxygen blown Catalytic tar reforming Physical solvent washing for H2S removal VESTA SNG Technology Feedstock: Woody materials 27 © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015 Biomass-to-SNG: Case study 25/06/2015 ' Case study: Biomass to SNG ITEM VALUE UNIT Feedstock type Woody material Feedstock flowrate 130 t/h AR Inlet thermal power 315-330 MWth Outlet SNG flowrate 21,000 Nm3/h Outlet Thermal power 200 MWth Biomass to SNG efficiency (Ther. Power bases,
including biomass for power production) 60-63'..67 % Total Investment Cost (TIC) 340-370 M' Specific Total Investment Cost (TIC / Ther. power out) 1,700-1,850 '/kWth SNG © Amec Foster Wheeler 2015


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