L’equilibrio tra ottimizzazione e prestazioni nei moderni sistemi di controllo

Nell’ottica dell’ottimizzazione dei sistemi di controllo, oltre ad avanzati pacchetti software, anche interessanti soluzioni hardware permettono di ottenere significativi risparmi di spazio e di tempi, consentendo al contempo maggiore flessibilità nelle fasi di ingegneria. Un accurato mix di remotizzazione degli I/O, marshalling intelligente e virtualizzazioni dei servers possono dunque rappresentare accorgimenti utili per realizzare moderne e flessibili architetture di controllo distribuito.

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Atti di convegni o presentazioni contenenti case history
mcT Petrolchimico novembre 2014 workshop

da Alessia De Giosa
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Estratto del testo
Milano, 27 novembre 2014! Gli atti dei convegni e più di 4.000 contenuti su <ISD-MASP-S13031> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/Apr/2014> Dec. 2014 S. Donato Optimization vs. Performance in the modern process control systems Massimiliano Veronesi Sales Support and Marketing Process Control & Safety Systems Vigilant Plant Services & Solutions Yokogawa Italy <ISD-MASP-S13031> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/Apr/2014> ' Control Hardware Optimization by Universal I/O '' Shortening the delivery through loop-check anticipation ' HMI Hardware optimization through Virtualization
' Other ways to optimize Contents <ISD-MASP-S13031> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/Apr/2014> Flexibility - 4 - <ISD-MASP-S13070> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <Feb. 2014> Reduce delays and be assured of starting production on schedule Avoiding Project Delays Smart Configurable IO Designed & constructed on site Virtual I/O wiring Application validation during FAT Last minute software marshaling <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 5 - Virtual Test Function Simulate complete DCS on computers Full-scale system can be tested without target hardware Wireless debug (wireless Factory Acceptance Test) Snap shots for evaluations Seamless integration with training simulation models <ISD-MASP-S10115> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/7/2011> Controller IOM Marshalling baord Junction Box Controller IOM Marshalling board Junction box Universal I/O reduces the footprint. Traditional I/O Universal I/O Work
*I/O list & Controller sizing
*Power, grounding & fusing design
*I/O design
*Spares sizing
*Cabinet design
*Conduit & cable layout
*Process narratives
*Installation package Work
*Cabinet design
*Jumpers & terminations
*Wiring diagrams
*Cable layout Work
*JB design
*Jumpers & terminations
*Wiring diagrams
*Cable layout
I/O design and relative works are eliminated. <ISD-MASP-S10115> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/7/2011> Smart Configurable I/O ''Best of both World' Universal I/O + Signal Conditioner - 8 - <ISD-MASP-S13070> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <Feb. 2014> Smart Configurable '' To secure project schedule Located in Field '' Distributed via high-speed network
'' Marshaling is eliminated High Reliability '' Redundant configuration Both Greenfield and Brownfield '' Various types of signals Smooth Replacement '' Full compatibility with existing IO N-IO - Smart, Small, & Progressive Compatibility - 9 - - 9 - N-IO (Network I/O) subsystem Hybrid type I/O of universal and single channel configuration
Launched as the new IO lineup of CENTUM VP AI/
AI/AO/DI/DO Terminals Option Adaptor for each channel ' TC,RTD
' Pulse
' etc. Universal I/O modules ' Signal type is configurable for each channel ' 4-20mA Analog input
' 4-20mA Analog output
' 24V DC Discrete input
' 24V DC Discrete output ' HART7 can be handled
' Redundant configuration I/O baseplate Front view - 10 - - 10 - Compact IO baseplate (No optional adapter) Smaller size of baseplate is also provided without option hardware ' I/O density of each cabinet can be increased in case of the signal types are stylized Smaller size - 11 - - 11 - IO network Configuration System Network Vnet/IP FCS Up to 100m by copper Node Interface Unit N-ESB bus N-ESB bus ' Up to 50 Km by optical fiber, 100 Mbps
' Cat5e cable
' No hub or switch is required - Lower performance - Heavy load in the system network might affect real-time computations - Less secure - System network is connected to OWS - Less robust - Field environment might be hard for std. switches, hubs '' Performance first ! - 12 - - 12 - IO network Configuration System Network Vnet/IP FCS Up to 100m by copper Node Interface Unit N-ESB bus N-ESB bus ' Up to 50 Km by optical fiber, 100 Mbps
' Cat5e cable
' No hub or switch is required - Future step under consideration : I/O bus shared among (limited amount of) different controllers - 13 - <ISD-MASP-S13070> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <Feb. 2014> Termination Field Signal Cables Plant Area AI AO AI AO AI AO AI AO AI
DI Relay DO
Relay DO
Relay DO
AI Pulse
DI Relay DO
Relay DO Analog Signal Digital Signal Mix Signal - 14 - <ISD-MASP-S13070> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <Feb. 2014> Footprint: N-IO vs. Conventional IO A-IO: 2,000 D-IO: 3,000 Total: 5,000 System Cabinet X 5 Analog Mar. Cabinet X 5 Digital Mar. Cabinet X 7 X 1 System Cabinet X 9 N-IO Cabinet 17 Cabinets 10 Cabinets C onv entiona l N -IO - 15 - Field Loop-Check wihout the controller Vnet/IP HIS AD Suite SCS FCS ESB Bus ESB Bus FIO FIO Project Database N-ESB Bus FCS Local Cabinet Scope of New Validation Tool (VT) Local Cabinet can ship to site w/o FCS. N-IO Validation Tool - 16 - Comparing With Current work and Flexible Binding Workflow ' Reduce the time span. ' Deadline of IO freezing is shifted by flexible binding Total Loop Check/ Commissioning Opera- tion Connection / indiv. Loop check CPU TEST Construction Phase (CPU, Cabinet, Transmitter)/ Wiring Work Shipping Current Workflow End of Execution Work at site Work in-house Execution FAT End of Wiring Check Execution FAT Shipping YOKOGAWA Flexible Binding Total Loop Check/ Commissioning Opera- tion CPU Test C P U C o ns tr uc tion Construction Phase (Cabinet, Transmitter)/ Wiring Work Connection / indiv. Loop check I/O Binding (Freeze specification) <ISD-MASP-S13031> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/Apr/2014> Virtualization <ISD-MASP-S13031> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/Apr/2014> - 19 - To reduce the number of PC boxes in plants '' It tends to increase the number of '' server, '' historian, etc. '' There is increasing of concern of both CAPEX and OPEX ' e.g. Foot-print, OS maintenance, power consumption '' The number of server PC is a serious issue for the control systems with server-client architecture To segregate the maintenance of hardware and software '' Windows OS is migrating every a few years and the previous OS becomes obsolete soon '' The latest PC hardware and previous OS may not be compatible
'' Many of software applications in the control systems highly depend on OS and are less compatible with newer OS ' Maintenance concern at the failure of the existing PC hardware Why virtualization in industrial plants now ' <ISD-MASP-S13031> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/Apr/2014> CAPEX Reduction - General Evaluation - Adopting VMware for virtualization 1:10 server consolidation ratio (10 virtualized machines can run in a server)* Lower electric power consumption and cooling cost Reduction of maintenance cost Reduction of footprint Smoother component migration Easy backup and restore Small Medium Large Not virtualized Virtualized Not virtualized Virtualized Not virtualized Virtualized No. server 20 2 50 5 100 10 * This is an assumption, it will depend on the application for the real project 200 400 600 KUSD <ISD-MASP-S13031> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/Apr/2014> OPEX Reduction - General Information -
Space, weight, and number of boxes/cabinets '' Assumed that server height is 2U, and 7 servers can be instal ed in a cabinet Small Medium Large Not virtualized Virtualized Not virtualized Virtualized Not virtualized Virtualized No. server 20 2 50 5 100 10 No. cabinet 3 1 8 1 15 2 Small/medium/large Not virtualized Virtualized 100% 16% Power consumption assumption '' No matter the size of the project, virtualization can reduce 84% of the power consumption than non-virtualized system Not virtualized Virtualized $200,000 $400,000 $600,000 USD <ISD-MASP-S13031> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/Apr/2014> - 22 - The virtualization works as an application on the host OS such as Windows, Linux
VMware Workstation, VirtualBox, etc Types of Virtualization: Host type vs. Hypervisor type Virtualization S/W Guest OS APP Hardware APP Host OS APP Virtual PC Virtualization S/W Hardware Guest OS Guest OS APP APP APP APP Virtual PCs Works as the host OS
PC resource can be consumed as much as possible for virtual PCs '' VMware ESXi, Microsoft Hyper-V, RedHat KVM, etc. <ISD-MASP-S13031> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/Apr/2014> - 23 - For server virtualization in working environment, hypervisor tends to be adopted '' Official support of Yokogawa systems are also in hypervisor type
'' However using Hyper-V is not recommended for workstation with Yokogawa components inside

Comparison between Host type and Hypervisor type Host type Hypervisor type Acceptability Easy to use Some level of knowledge is required Resource usage Larger overhead (Lower performance) Smaller overhead (Higher performance) Security Low High Scale Small Large Performance Low High <ISD-MASP-S13031> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/Apr/2014> - 24 - Virtual network is working in the virtualization software
Virtual NICs and virtual switches are working (emulating)
Only Physical NIC are suitable for real-time deterministic applications '' Performance first ! The performance issue Virtualization S/W Actual NIC (hardware) Virtual Network Other PCs Actual network switch Actual network <ISD-MASP-S13031> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/Apr/2014> - 25 - If the PC is a quad core machine then 3 virtual machines may be the maximum to be deployed (1 core for the main application and 1 core for each of the 3 virtual PCs). If Hyper-threading is enabled, then double the number of cores are required. '' (Number of cores) = (CPU reservation frequency) ÷ (Frequency of CPU of physical server) x 2 '' if HT is enabled '' (CPU reservation frequency) = (CPU frequency) x (Number of cores) ÷ 2
'' Es.: Required CPU resources are 3.00 GHz and 4 cores, with 2.8GHz physical Server: ' (CPU reservation frequency) = 3.00 GHz x 4 cores ÷ 2 = 6 GHz ' (Number of cores) = (6/2.8) ' 2 = 2.14 ' 2 = 4.28 '' 5 (rounded up) Condition:
Σ [CPU reservation frequency of Yokogawa Products] x 1.25 < [CPU resource], Where [CPU resource] = [CPU frequency - in GHz] x [No. of cores] x [No. of CPUs] '' Es. Sum of CPU reservation frequency = 6.00 + 6.00 = 12.00 GHz
'' the CPU resource for a server machine with frequency 2.60 GHz and 8 cores is 2.6 GHz x 8 cores = 20.8 GHz '' 12.0 x 1.25 (VMSphere Overhead) < 20.8 The performance issue <ISD-MASP-S13031> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/Apr/2014> - 26 - Using SAS3 or RAID4 configuration to secure the performance is needed. Using SSD5 is not recommended because of lower endurance. '' VMware allows three types of formatting for virtual storages. It is strongly recommended to adopt ''Thick provisioning (Eager Zeroed)' with securing area in advance and with executing zero formatting. Using ''Thin provisioning' causes lower performance, and Lazy Zeroed causes disk access error. It is mandatory to configure the Yokogawa product to use enough memory area exclusively to secure performance in both off and on-process.
Generally the clock of guest OSs may be delayed when the load on Hypervisor becomes too high. If the demand of time synchronization is severe, the synchronization period should be set shorter.
One physical server PC failure stops multiple server functions: highly available industrial server is recommended The performance issue <ISD-MASP-S13031> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/Apr/2014> Virtualization Benchmarking Virtualized Architecture Current Yokogawa System architecture Small Medium Large 20 50 100 Benchmarking: Number of PC (Server/Workstation) Performance First: Excluding Servers with Vnet/IP modules <ISD-MASP-S13031> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/Apr/2014> - 29 - Example of on-process systems Vnet or Vnet/IP ENG/HIS HIS Exaopc FCS PJT database Server Historian Pilot APC KPI AMS <ISD-MASP-S13031> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/Apr/2014> - 30 - Example of on-process systems Vnet or Vnet/IP Win 7 KPI Win 7 AMS SOE Win 7 Instr. Maint. Win 2008 Historian Win 7 Pilot Win 7 APC VMware FCS VM Server Client stations ENG/HIS HIS OPC <ISD-MASP-S13031> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/Apr/2014> - 31 - Example of off-process systems '' Operator Training systems VMWare OmegaLand Win 2008 ExaOPC Win 2008 ExaPilot Win 7 FCS Win 7 FCS FCS FCS FCS FCS FCS FCS SCS Win 7 SCS SCS SCS SCS SCS SCS SCS OTS on VM Server HIS Win 7 ENG/SENG/HIS Win 7 HIS Win 7 HIS Win 7 Trainees'' clients Instructor''s <ISD-MASP-S13031> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/Apr/2014> - 32 - Example of off-process systems '' Operator Training systems <ISD-MASP-S13031> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/Apr/2014> - 33 - Other balances to be considered Sub-system communications '' Data for HMI: OPC Client (redundant) workstation can manage up to 100,000 variables '' Data for control logic: put (redundant) link module in one rack of the related CPU '' Integrated Control+Safety system provides optimization + performance at the same time RTU network UGS Modbus / Profibus ' Redundant Configuration is
available. DCS network OPC DA+HDA (or UA) Modbus/TCP (or RTU) Benefits - Lower Controller CPU load - High throughput - A&E by OPC A&E - Simple reliable industrial solution - Subsystem data directly available in DCS controller for control/logic functions Drawbacks - Unreliable IT technology - Subsystem data NOT directly available in DCS controller for control/logic functions - Affecting Controller CPU load (to be distributed among the DCS controllers) - Not supporting A&E with timestamps
<ISD-MASP-S13031> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/Apr/2014> - 34 - Other balances to be considered Multi-monitor/Graphic windows '' Each mimic call data from the system bus while one single operator cannot pay attention to more than 5÷12 windows at the
same time: prevent it by limiting the number of graphic windows which can be called by the operator by FIFO mechanism. <ISD-MASP-S13031> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/Apr/2014> - 35 - Conclusions Different kind of Optimization or Functions are attractive and may lead to significant Capex/Opex reductions'
' but also to some performance issues.
Clever engineering should carefully consider the right balance between optimization and performance with respect to the specific application <Document Number> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <date/time> - 37 - Any question ' 37 Proprietary info goes here' <ISD-MASP-S13031> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <1/Apr/2014> <ISD-MASP-S13070> Copyright © Yokogawa Electric Corporation <Feb. 2014> Thank you for your attention!

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