Analysis of corroded elbow section of carbon steel piping system of an oil–gas separator vessel

(in lingua inglese)

Based upon the results of this study, it is concluded that the observed pinhole is formed as a result of localized corrosion involving a sequential chlorination and sulfidation reactions. This is correlated with formation of hydrochloric acid by hydrolysis of inorganic salts in the crude oil particularly calcium chloride and reactions involving hydrogen sulfide leading to continued metal wastage by formation and spallation of non-protective scale.

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Fonte: Articolo Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis, 2013
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