Altre applicazioni di monitoraggio ottico oltre a quelle strettamente relative al settore oil&gas

(in lingua inglese)

Project Overview
Ecopetrol’s Pipeline Network
Sensor Lay-out
Sensor Installation
Data collection
Measured Pipeline Strains

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SAVE ottobre 2018 Il monitoraggio dell’integrità delle infrastrutture: dai sensori all’elaborazione / visualizzazione delle criticità

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Estratto del testo
Veronafiere 17-18 ottobre 2018 Vi aspettiamo a mcT Petrolchimico Milano, 29 novembre 2018 Cogenerazione Termotecnica Industriale Pompe di Calore 27 ottobre Cogenerazione Termotecnica Industriale Pompe di Calore Alimentare Alimentare Petrolchimico Alimentare 28 ottobre Alimentare Petrolchimico Alimentare Alimentare Petrolchimico Visione e Tracciabilit 28 ottobre Luce Energia Domotica LED Luce Energia Domotica LED Petrolchimico Alimentare Petrolchimico Petr Oil Pipeline On-Line Geotechnical
Risk Monitoring
A Case Study Colombia, 2012 - 2015 2015 Micron Optics| The Challenge
' Buried oil & gas pipelines are susceptible to accumulated strain, bending
and possible rupture effects from soil movements and other geohazards. ' Ecopetrol in Colombia desired to have a means for real-time, on-line
monitoring of critical sectors of their extensive pipeline network and get
advance warning of over-stresses, bent or ruptured oil pipelines. ' The installation demanded a solution that is intrinsically safe to avoid any
possible explosions, immune to lightning effects and electric shorts,
resistant to humidity and contact with water, as well as capable of remote
interrogation. The Solution
' Use optical fiber FBG temperature-compensated strain sensors mounted
around the perimeter of the pipeline in critical locations. ' Accumulated strains and induced bending are determined by using a set
of 3, radically equidistant strain sensors. ' Sensor are installed on pre-determined locations where geohazard risk is
known to happen or suspected. Periodic strain readings are taken bi-
weekly manually, over the entire pipeline network operated by Ecopetrol. 2 Project Overview The Results
' 71 different critical geohazard sectors along Ecopetrol's
oil transportation pipeline network were instrumented
with anywhere from 1 to 10 (triad) FBG strain sensing
belts. ' Over 300 strain sensors were installed with only 3
sensors damaged during installation procedures. Each
sensor installation required 2-3 days of installation (not
counting excavation and re-burial operations). ' The monitoring system has been in operation since
Spring of 2013. Data is taken manually every fortnight
by a field crew that visits each sector and records data. ' Valuable behavior of critical pipeline sections has been
obtained, quantifying accumulated axial strains, pipeline
bending and potential sites for incipient pipe rupture or
leaks. ' To date, 2 serious pipeline failures have been averted.
Multiple locations with accumulated strains have been
identified and appropriate stress-relieving pipeline
activities carried out. 3 Project Overview Ecopetrol's Pipeline Network ' Ecopetrol's transportation network
consists of approximately 5,269
kilometers of main crude oil pipeline
networks connecting various fields to
the Barrancabermeja refinery and
Reficar, as well as to export facilities. ' Pipelines vary in outside diameter from 10' to 48' inches. 4 Project Overview Aim Provide early warning to Ecopetrol pipeline operators
about possible pipeline mechanical bending or rupture
from soil movements. Location Colombia System Integrator Salazar Ferro Ingenieros, Bogota, Colombia Customer Ecopetrol Date Project Started in Fall of 2012. Installation completed
Spring of 2013. In operation since. Instrumentation (7) Micron Optics sm125-500 Optical Sensing Interrogator Sensors (> 300) Micron Optics os3155 temperature-compensated
FBG strain sensors Software Micron Optics Enlight software 5 6 A B C 120 Axial strain Sensor Lay-out Sensor Installation Sensor pre-placement Removal of pipeline coating Sensor Placement prior to welding Sensor inspection & verification 7 Sensor Installation 8 Spot-welding of sensors Sensors are covered with impermeable patches Aspect of welded sensor to pipe Aspect of completed installation Sensor Installation 9 Sensor wrapping protection Pipeline re-burial FO cable junction terminal Data collection Each geo-hazard location along the pipeline
network has a set of 1 to 10 separate strain-sensing
FBG sensor belt. Each 'sensor belt' had its strain
readings manually recorded bi-weekly, by
connecting the sm125 interrogator to connector
terminated fibers protected inside the shown tubular
housings. This prevented damage from wild
animals or vandalism. 10 11 Measured Pipeline Strains Graph illustrates the accumulated axial strain on a pipeline point over a two-year
period. It can be observed that the pipeline is gradually stretched due to soil
movement over time, reaching strains > 1000 ue, until the pipeline is stress relieved. 12 Example of time-accumulated strains Geohazard pipeline location (pk 195+700). Notice how the points outside the geohazard zone remain
stable (left graphs) while those in the critical region, display
accumulated strains and bends caused by soil movement. Summary ' The FBG strain sensors provide valuable advantages to the customer in this project
such as: ' fast and easy installation ' accurate data ' Immunity to electric interferences (storms or electric motors near to the pipeline) ' no need for calibration in each measure (as resistive and vibrating string based sensors). ' Periodic monitoring of accumulated pipe strains and bending on critical locations
were geohazard risks were identified or anticipated. ' Measured data provided a valuable operations tool for: ' Stress relieving of severe pipeline stresses ' Early warning of potential pipe ruptures ' Better understanding of time evolution of mechanical effects on pipeline network ' Help define new maintenance protocols and set safety strain thresholds 13 Acknowledgements Ecopetrol
' Dr. Fis. Juan David Betancur Ros ' Dr. William Villamizar Surez ' Luis Carlos Castellanos ' Luis Eduardo Zabala ' Carolina Cuaical ' Jaime Aristizabal Salazar Ferro Ingenieros
' Andres Salazar-Ferro ' Dr. Francisco Salazar-Ferro ' Daniel Salazar-Ferro ' Carlos Humberto Troncoso ' Marly Benitez MCH Engineering LLC
' Dr. Alexis Mndez 14

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