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Nanotecnologie per Edilizia

Nanotecnologie, abbreviato in "nanotech", è lo studio del controllo della materia su scala atomica e molecolare. Generalmente occasioni nanotecnologie con le strutture di dimensioni 100 nanometri o inferiori in almeno una dimensione, e coinvolge materiali di sviluppo o dispositivi all'interno di quella dimensione. Lo studio della Nanotecnologia e della nanoscienza è iniziato nei primi anni 1980 con due grandi sviluppi: la nascita della scienza dei cluster e l'invenzione del microscopio a effetto tunnel (STM)

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Slide utilizzate al corso di "Tecnologia Dei Materiali E Chimica Applicata", Alessandra Bianco - Corso Di Laurea in Ingegneria Dell'edilizia . Roma, 2013

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Enrico Ercolani Department of Industrial Engineering Via del Politecnico 1, 00133, Rome, Italy enrico.ercolani@uniroma2.it www.mastteam.it Contents '' What's Nano'
'' NanoTechnology
'' NanoArchitecture
'' NanoMaterials
'' Nanoscale
'' Functions and applications
'' Costs
'' The Holistic Application of Nanosurfaces in Interiors
'' Conclusions
'' References Nanotechnology "IBM" written out of 35 xenon atoms onto a nickel surface What''s NANO At The Nanoscale:

1- Quantum mechanical
effects come into play at very
small dimensions and lead to
new physics and chemistry

2- A defining feature at the
nanoscale is the very large
surface-to-volume ratio of
these structures One Nanometer (nm) Is One Billionth, Or 10''9 Of A Meter Nanotechnology (NT) Nanotechnology, shortened to "nanotech", is the study of the control of matter on an
atomic and molecular scale
. Generally nanotechnology deals with structures of the size
100 nanometers or smaller in at least one dimension, and involves developing materials
or devices within that size. Nanotechnology and nanoscience got started in the early 1980s with two major
developments:
1- the birth of cluster science
2- the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM)
This development led to the discovery of fullerenes in 1985 and carbon nanotubes a few
years later NanoArchitecture Nanotechnology Can Make A Concrete Contribution To The
Following Areas:
' Optimization of existing products.
' Damage protection.
' Reduction in weight and / or volume.
' Reduction in the number of production stages.
' A more efficient use of materials.
' Reduced need for maintenance (easy to clean, longer
cleaning intervals) and / or operational upkeep.
And as a direct result:
' Reduction in the consumption of raw materials and energy
and reduced CO2
emissions that will affect good in environment.
' Conservation of resources.
' Greater economy.
' Comfort. The shiny surface that nanocubes display under the
microscope holds its promise. An ideal medium for storing
hydrogen, its nanopore structure means that 2,5 grams have
an interior surface area equivalent to the size of a soccer field.
They could potentially be used as energy stores for fuel cells
for powering mobile electronic equipment. NanoArchitecture Dozens of building materials incorporate nanotechnology,
from self-cleaning windows to flexible solar panels to Wi-
Fi blocking paint, and many more are in development,
including self-healing concrete, materials to block
ultraviolet and infrared radiation, smog-eating coatings
and light-emitting walls and ceilings. Example are: 1. Carbonfiber
2. Energycoating
3. Heat absorbing windows
4. Nanocoatings
5. INSULADD,® QuantumSpheres,andNano
aluminium powders.
6. Ultra Low Energy High Brightness Light
(ULEHB).
7. Nanosensors. Ultra Low Energy High Brightness Light (ULEHB) These new ultra low energy lighting devices will be
fabricated using carbon nanotube organic composites
which will significantly reduce energy running costs, thus
reducing carbon dioxide emissions at power generating
stations Potential uses such as variable mood lighting over a
whole wall or ceiling
opens up a range of exciting
applications. ULEHB is also expected to have wide uses
in signage, displays, street lighting, commercial
lighting, public buildings and offices.
Lighting will produce the same quality light as the best
100 watt light bulb (Sustainable Energy), but using only a
fraction of the energy and last many times longer Nanosensors Nanosensors can monitor temperature, humidity, and airborne toxins, vibration, decay
and other performance concerns in building
components, from structural members to
appliances.
The Nano Vent-Skin is a zero-emission material that takes a tri-
partite approach (sunlight,wind,CO2) towards energy efficiency. 1. The outer skin of the structure absorbs sunlight through an organic photovoltaic skin and transfers it to the nano-fibers
inside the nano-wires which then is sent to storage units at
the end of each panel 2. Each turbine on the panel generates energy by chemical reactions on each end where it makes contact with the
structure. Bioengineered organisms are responsible for this
process on every turbine''s turn 3. The inner skin of each turbine, made of bioengineered organism, works as a filter absorbing CO2 from the
environment as wind passes through it Nanomaterials The pattern of the building shell of the Watercube, the National Swimming Centre
for the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China, resembles oversized buckybails
Why Nanomaterials ' Nanotechnology offers a new technological means with which to:  Tackle climate change.
 Help reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the foreseeable future. The use of nanotechnology in construction is strongly linked to sustainability. The first
phase of the Kyoto Protocol ends in 2012 and CO2 emissions across the world must be
halved by 2050. Energy efficient construction is therefore imperative, particularly as
construction is a major producer of CO2 emissions. Nanotechnology offer architecture, interior architecture and related disciplines a
means of achieving greater energy efficiency and sustainable construction through
innovation. Nanomaterials In architecture the are two different design approaches for
materials and surfaces:
1- Honesty of Materials '' ''what you see is what you get'
Authenticity is a priority; high-quality materials such as
natural stone or solid woods. 2- Fakes/artificial surfaces that imitate natural
materials
For the most part, fake materials are chosen for
cost reasons. Artificial surfaces are brought to
perfection; the grain can be tailored to appear
exactly as desired; the color matches the sample
precisely and does not change over the course of
time.
Certain design approaches prefer the provocation
of deliberate artificiality. Nanomaterials In future, a third option will be available:
3- Functional Nanosurfaces, emancipated from underlying materials
The properties of such ultra-thin surfaces can differ entirely from the material
they enclose and can be transparent and completely invisible.
Also possible are nanocomposites with new
properties:
''Nanoparticles or other Nanomaterials are
integrated into conventional materials so that the
characteristics of the original material are not only
improved but can be accorded new functional
properties or even be made multifunctional. ''Surface materials that are customized to have
specific functional properties are set to become the
norm, switchng from catalogue materials to made-to-
measure materials with definable combination of
properties '' a perfectly modular system. Nanoscale Materials reduced to the nanoscale
can show very different properties
compared to what they exhibit on a
macroscale:
 Opaque substances become transparent (copper)
 Inert materials attain catalytic
properties (platinum)
 Stable materials turn combustible
(aluminum)
 Solids turn into liquids at room
temperature (gold)
 Insulators become conductors
(silicon) Nanoscale A Nanomaterial is an object that has at least one dimension in nanometer scale Nanoscale One-dimension: thin films, layers and surfaces:
One-dimensional Nanomaterials have been developed and
used for decades in fields such as electronic device
manufacture, chemistry and engineering Thin Solar film Two-dimension: tubes and wires
' Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are extended tubes of
rolled graphene sheets. They are mechanically very
strong, flexible (about their axis), and can conduct
electricity extremely well. CNTs are used in in
reinforced composites, sensors, nanoelectronics and
display devices.
' Nanowires are ultrafine wires or linear arrays of
dots, formed by self-assembly. Nanowires demonstrated remarkable optical, electronic and
magnetic characteristics and have potential applications in highdensity data storage.

Silica nanowires CNT structure Nanoscale Three-dimension: nanoparticle and fullerens

' Nanoparticles are often defined as particles of less than 100nm
in diameter. They exhibit new properties (such as chemical
reactivity and optical behavior) that compared with larger
particles of the same materials. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide
become transparent at the nanoscale, however are able to absorb
and reflect UV light, and have found application in sunscreens.
For most applications, nanoparticles will be fixed, for example
attached to a surface or within in a composite

' C60 (buckminsterfullerene) are spherical molecules about 1nm in
diameter, comprising 60 carbon atoms arranged as 20 hexagons
and 12 pentagons: the configuration of a football.
Coatings Chemical Vapor Deposition, Dip, Meniscus, Spray, Plasma Self-cleaning: Lotus-Effect® 'Microscopically rough, not smooth
'Hydrophobic : water trickles off The Lotus plant with its
natural self-cleaning qualities lends its name to
the "Lotus-Effect". A microscopic view of a
water droplet resting on
a superhydrophic and
visibly knobbly surface. The surface is covered with 5-10
micrometrehigh knobbles
, here
enlarged, which themselves are
covered with a nanostructure and
have waxy tips. Self-cleaning: Lotus-Effect® The visualisation illustrates how the basic principle of the Lotus-Effect works: the
knobbly structure combined with reduced surface contact and low surface adhesion
makes water form droplets that run off, washing away dirt deposits. Self-cleaning: Lotus-Effect® The diagrams show clearly the difference between
conventional surfaces and the Lotus-Effect. Self-cleaning: Lotus-Effect® To summarise, in all areas not subject to
mechanical wear and tear, the Lotus-Effect
drastically reduces the cleaning requirement
and surfaces that are regularly exposed to water
remain clean. The advantages are self-evident: a
cleaner appearance and considerably reduced
maintenance demands. Self-cleaning: Lotus-Effect® Ara Pacis Museum, Rome, Italy Here a self-cleaning coating has been invisibly integrated into the white surfaces to ensure
the durability of their color.
In the heavily polluted city, it would not otherwise have stood
much chance of remaining white for long Self-cleaning: Lotus-Effect® Commercial Building, Pula, Croatia The intensity of the pure white surfaces is protected against dirt with the help of a Lotus-
Effect facade coating. Dirt simply washes off the rough surface together with the rain. The
self-cleaning function should persist for at least five years without needing to be renewed Self-cleaning: Lotus-Effect® Private residence, Agstall, Germany The facade creates a play of shadow and reflection and is coated with a traditional plaster
slurry, into which a self-cleaning paint with Lotus-Effect has been mixed.
Self-cleaning: Lotus-Effect® Strucksbarg Housing, Hamburg, Germany The differentiated colouring of the new facades is most apparent. Warm colours in a
palette between yellow and red lend the entire estate a pleasant and unified appearance.
As regards the self-cleaning function, Hamburg proves to be an ideal location as there is no
lack of rain. Self-cleaning: Photocatalysis 'Hydrophilic surfaces.
'Deposited dirt is broken down and lies loose on the surface.
'A water film washes dirt away.
'UV light and water are required.
'Reduces maintenance requirement.
Photocatalytic self-cleaning is probably the most widely used Nano-function in building
construction, with Japan leading the field.
Its primary effect is that it greatly reduces the extent of dirt adhesion on surfaces.
the term "self-cleaning" in this context is misleading and does not mean, as commonly
assumed, that a surface need not be cleaned at all.
Fewer detergents are required, resulting in less environmental pollution and less wear and
tear of materials.
A further advantage is that light transmission for glazing and translucent membranes is
improved as daylight is obscured less by surface dirt and grime. Energy costs for lighting
can be reduced accordingly.


. Self-cleaning: Photocatalysis Before and after:
On conventional tiles, water forms
droplets that dry leaving behind dirt
deposits.





On the hydrophilic surfaces of
photocatalytic tiles, water forms a film
that runs off taking any loose dirt
deposits with it. Self-cleaning: Photocatalysis For the function to work, UV light, oxygen and air humidity are required. The level of UV light
present in normal daylight is sufficient to activate the photocatalytic reaction. Organic dirt on
the surface of a material is decomposed with the help of a catalyst - usually titanium
dioxide (Ti02, and the particularly reactive derivative Anatase)
. The nanoscalar dimension of
Ti02 makes it a highly reactive catalyst, speeding up the decompositionprocess rapidly without
being used up so that the effect is lasting, and appears no longer white but transparent.
As the UV component of light with a wavelength of less than 390 nm is considered essential,
photocatalytic selfcleaning surfaces are generally speaking more effective outdoors than
indoors. The method is predestined, for example, for use on building facades.
Self-cleaning: Photocatalysis Surfaces are hydrophilic (water-attracting), which means that water runs off from any
inclined surface in a film rather than in droplets. In comparison to Lotus- Effect surfaces, this
coating is transparent and can be applied to glass invisibly.
In combination with photocatalytic coatings silicon-free must be used and film-forming
detergents must also be abandone because the oils they contain transfer to the glass and
are incompatible with the surface coating, rendering it partially hydrophobic. Self-cleaning: Photocatalysis TiO2 and PVC coated white membranes in weathering tests. The difference is
readily apparent: after five months the former is still white, the latter grey and
unsightly.
Self-cleaning: Photocatalysis Muhammad Ali Center MAC Louisville, Kentucky, USA To maintain a consistently good appearance and to keep
down the cost of cleaning, the ceramic tiles are equipped
with a photocatalytic self-cleaning surface coating. The
coating is baked onto the glaze
of the tiles and is therefore
indefinitely durable. In addition the surface is also air-
purifying, breaking down pollution and exhaust gases from
vehicles and industry in the surrounding atmosphere Self-cleaning: Photocatalysis Hyatt Regency Garden Chapel Osaka, Japan Without its photocatalytic self-cleaning surface, the white of the membrane would not
have lasted long without having to be cleaned
regularly or even replaced at intervals. Self-cleaning: Photocatalysis Narita International Airport of Tokyo, Terminal 1. Chiba, Japan Membranes offer protection against the
weather and therefore improve comfort for
passengers. As the membranes are
equipped with a photocatalytic self-
cleaning coating, the cost of cleaning and
maintenance is kept to a minimum. Self-cleaning: Photocatalysis AKT - Am Kaiser's TXirm Heilbronn, Germany A photocatalytic self-cleaning glass was specified to ensure the best possible view without
incurring excessive cleaning costs. The project illustrates how nanotechnology-based high-
tech surfaces can also be of benefit for historic monuments. Self-cleaning: Photocatalysis east Hotel St. Pauli, Hamburg, Germany The self-cleaning function of the glass is therefore especially useful for hard-to-reach
locations such as overhead glazing or glazed external walkways Self-cleaning: Photocatalysis G-Flat, Tokyo, Japan A photocatalytic self-cleaning glass coating helps the glass stay clean and is transparent
due to its nanoscalar qualities. Self-cleaning: Photocatalysis Kurakuen private residence Nishinomya City, Hyogo, Japan The architectural office responsible for both these houses has specified self-cleaning
photocatalytic colour coatings for most of its projects since 2002 Self-cleaning: Photocatalysis Senri New Town private residence Osaka, Japan ln these projec ts the photocat alytic self-cleaning outdoor coating is more
than simply practical; it helps preserve the buildings'' aesthetics. Self-cleaning: Photocatalysis House in Creek Hiroshima, Japan Photocatalytic selfcleaning systems are ideal for such waterside locations where water and
light are plentiful as both of these components are essential for the self-cleaning function
of the coating. Self-cleaning: Photocatalysis Disabled-access housing for elderly people, Frick, Switzerland The facade has to be cleaned from outside by "skyworkers'' and the longer cleaning
intervals made possible by the self-cleaning coating help reduce the building's running
costs. Self-cleaning: Photocatalysis MSV Arena soccer stadium Duisburg, Germany By using a photocatalytic self-cleaning glass, the cleaning interval could be lengthened
considerably. In addition to its selfcleaning function, the glass wall also offers solar
protection and noise insulating properties Self-cleaning: Photocatalysis Children's playground in the Mannou National Government Park Kagawa, Japan By using a photocatalytic self-cleaning
coating, it was possible to choose a light
colour for the membrane. Even in poor
weather conditions, the UV light required to
initiate the photocatalytic reaction is
sufficient so that rain can wash off the dirt
deposits lying loose on the membrane. Easy-to-clean (ETC) 'Smooth surfaces with reduced surface attraction.
'Surface repellence without using the Lotus-Effect. ETC surfaces are smooth rather than rough. These surfaces
have a lower force of surface attraction due to a decrease
in their surface energy, resulting in reduced surface
adhesion. This causes water to be repelled, forming
droplets and running off.
ETC surfaces are therefore hydrophobic and often also
oleophobic, making them well suited for use in bathrooms.
Water that runs off inclined ETC surfaces forms droplets,
washing away surface grime in the process. It is therefore
necessary to consider where and how the easy-to-clean
function should best be employed. As a rule, suitable
surfaces should be inclined and exposed to sufficient
quantities of water.
ETC surfaces are most commonly found in interiors, but can
also be employed outdoors for better weather protection. Easy-to-clean (ETC) A comparison of ceramic surfaces '' left
without ETC coating, right with ETC
coating.
Flexible ETC ceramic wall coverings,
similar to wallpapers, can withstand
direct exposure to water, such as that in
a shower cubicle, thanks to their highly
water-repellent surface. "Roll-out marble"- Impact-resistant,
fire-retardant, vapour permeable and
yet water-repellent and easy-to-clean.
The product consists of four layers:
1) a flexible polymer matting as backing
2) coloured ceramic material is applied
3) optional printing
4) ceramised top coat Easy-to-clean (ETC) Science to Business Center Nanotronics & Bio, Marl, Germany Various parts of the interior feature a
particularly robust nanoceramic wall covering
It is flexible, impact-resistant and is vapour
permeable whilst at the same time water-
repellent. It can be applied similar to a
normal wallpaper and is available in rolls.
Beyond conventional applications, it can also
be used in areas where conventional
wallpaper would be inappropriate, for
instance as a replacement for wall tiles in
toilet areas.
Easy-to-clean (ETC) Kaldewei Kompetenz-Center (KKC) Ahlen, Germany The enamelled facade panels
are coloured in the company's
typical colour palette and are
partially equipped with an
easy-to-clean coating. This coating is otherwise used in
the manufacture of bathtubs
to further improve the ease
with which one can clean the
already low-maintenance material. Easy-to-clean (ETC) Private residence Erlenbach, Switzerland To protect the wood against weathering and to slow its gradual grey discoloration, the wood
has been given a hydrophobic treatment. Rather than sealing the wood with a varnish-like
film, the wood is impregnated transparently allowing it to breathe. The high-tech
hydrophobic coating does not obscure the natural grain of the wood. Easy-to-clean (ETC) Modem Classicism Shanghai, China MoHen chose special wall coatings for their
antibacterial, easy-to-clean and warming
properties. The natural stone stairs have
likewise been given a hydrophobic coating for
aesthetic and self-cleaning reasons and to
improve their durability. Easy-to-clean (ETC) Urban lounge / Light bubbles St. Gallen, Switzerland The surface is covered with a dirt, snow and ice-repellent
coating, which is ultra-thin, transparent and unaffected by
UV light. Its anti-adhesive function ensures that dirt,
which with time would impair the intensity of the light, is
washed away with the rain. The lights are also equipped
with fan heaters, a "plan B" for melting snow and ice. The
coating has a limited lifetime, and must be renewed after
several months. Antibacterial 'Bacteria are targeted and destroyed.
'The use of disinfectants can be reduced.
'Supports hygiene methods - Especially in health care
environments.
With the help of silver nanoparticles it is possible to manufacture
surfaces specifically designed to be antibacterial or germicidal.
Whether in the form of ultra-thin and invisible coatings or materials to
which the particles have been added, these have an effect stronger
than antibiotics. The antibacterial effect of silver results from the
ongoing slow diffusion of silver ions. The very high surface area to
volume ratio of the nanoparticles means that the ions can be emitted
more easily and therefore kill bacteria more effectively. Bacteria have
no chance of survival as the ions firstly hinder the process of cell
division, secondly destabilise the cell membrane, walls or plasma and
thirdly interrupt the enzyme's transport
of nutrients. In this way, bacteria can be lastingly eradicated without
the use of chemicals. The antibacterial effect itself is also permanent -
it does not wear off after a period of time. Antibacterial Housing estate.Duisburg, Germany Silver nanoparticles of on average 10-15 nm in size
lend the paint antimicrobial properties that remove
the basis for mould and mildew. The particles are
chemically stable and firmly anchored in the paint.
The antimicrobial agent therefore cannot be
washed out and the antibacterial function remains
intact for many years. Three years later, no mould
infestation is to be seen. The use of
nanotechnology in this case offers an environmentally friendly and effective solution
without the need for strong chemicals, and
prevents further damage to the elevations Antibacterial Operating theatre Berlin, Germany The floors and walls have been clad in
photocatalytic tiles. Largeformat tiling is more
difficult to lay, and a conventional tile format
was chosen for the high-tech antibacterial tiles
used in the Harzkliniken. The light-coloured
grouting contrasts pleasantly with the fresh
green tiling Antibacterial Patient's hospital room prototype Berlin, Germany Pleasant upholstered fabrics are used and
still remain clean due to the antibacterial and
dirt-resistant properties of nano silver
particles. Light switches or floor surfaces,
which are both subject to greater exposure to
germs, are treated similarly. Quality wood
veneers can be used thanks to antibacterial
varnishes. Insulation Thermal insulation: Vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) 'Maximum thermal insulation
'Minimal insulation thickness The historical precursor to vacuum insulators is
the thermos flask: low thermal conductivity is
achieved by evacuating the air entirely and the
cylindrical form withstands the high pressure
created by the vacuum. This approach is more
difficult for flat insulation layers as they are
unable to withstand the pressure. The solution
to the problem is the use of an extremely fine
fill material with a nanoscalar porosity of
around 100 nm
. A comparatively low pressure is
then sufficient to evacuate the air making it
possible to construct panels that can be used in
building construction. The thickness of these
VIPs ranges from 2 mm to 40 mm. Thermal insulation: Vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) The panels are constructed as follows: an enveloping skin
made of plastic foil (often coated with aluminium)
or of stainless steel encloses the fill material in a vacuum. The
fill material takes the form of a foam, powder or glass fibres
and is always porous, resists pressure and can be evacuated.
The hermetically weld-sealed ends protrude on each side and
are usually folded back and stuck to the panel.
For the panels to function correctly, it is imperative that the
vacuum-enclosing skin is not pierced.
Careful planning is necessary in order not to impair the
insulating effect of the VIPs. Gaps between neighbouring
panels must be minimised as far as possible to avoid cold
bridges (heat leaks) resulting when the gap is too large.
VIPs are more expensive than conventional insulation
materials and today are not necessarily conceived as a
general replacement for conventional insulation.
The lifetime of modern panels is generally estimated at
between 30 and 50 years
VIPs Sonnenschiff centre Freiburg, Germany The VIPs constitute the insulation of the external walls and window parapets as well
as the ventilation flaps on the main facade. VIPs Seitzstrasse mixed-use building Munich, Germany The first building of a substantial size to be fully clad with vacuum insulation panels Thermal insulation: Aereogel 'High-performance thermal insulation.
'Light and airy nanofoam. Aerogels in combination with
glass
Opaque nanogel pearls.
Translucent nanogel granulate.
Heaps of aerogel
Thermal insulation: Aereogel Aerogel currently holds the record as the lightest known
solid material and was developed back in 1931.
The gel is a globular granulate and appears milky,
translucent and somewhat cloudy. It is simply an ultra-
light aerated foam that consists almost 100% of nothing
other than air (the exact figure varies between 95% and
99.9%). The remaining foam material is a glasslike
material, silicon dioxide, also known as silica. The
nanodimension is of vital importance for the pore
interstices of the foam: the air molecules trapped within
the minute nanopores - each with a mean size of just 20
nm - are unable to move, lending the aerogel its excellent
thermal insulation properties
. In addition to its thermal
insulating properties, aerogel also acts as a sound
insulator according to the same basic principle.
Because it is translucent, aerogel exhibits good light
transmission, spreading light evenly and pleasantly. Aereogel County Zoo Milwaukee, WI. USA The installation of aerogel-filled glass panels, which provide
glare-free natural daylight whilst ensuring greater energy
efficiency Aereogel School extension, London, England The south elevation, behind which classrooms, the assembly hall, an internet cafe
and a dance studio are located, is clad entirely in translucent 70 mm thick aerogel-
filled panels. Aereogel
Sports hall
Carquefou, ZAC du Souchais, France All elevations of this sports complex have been clad with aerogel-filled multi-wall
polycarbonate panels. Aereogel Factory Zaisertshofen, Germany 16mm thick translucent aerogel-filled multiwall
polycarbonate panels were installed in the skylights
to provide uniform glare-free natural illumination in
the workspace beneath. Temperature regulation: Phase change materials (PCMs) 'Passive temperature regulation.
'Reduced heating and cooling demand. PCMs are invariably made from paraffin
and salt hydrates. Minute paraffin
globules with a diameter of between 2
and 20 nm
are enclosed in a sealed
plastic sheathing. These can be integrated
into typical building materials (plasters,
plasterboards or aerated concrete blocks),
whereby around 3 million such capsules
fit in a single square centimetre. An image of minute paraffin-fiiled
capsules in their solid state, taken using
light microscopy. They exhibit an
exceptionally high thermal capacity and
during a phase change turn to liquid.
PCMs During a phase change, the warmth is retained
latently for as long as is required to change from
one physical state to another.
As PCM is able to take up energy (heat) without
the medium itself getting warm, it can absorb
extremes in temperature, allowing indoor areas
to remain cooler for longer, with the heat being
retained in the PCM and used to liquefy the
paraffin.
As the temperature rises, melting the waxy
contents of the microcapsule, the paraffin
changes from solid to liquid. The same principle
also functions in the other direction: rooms that
are cooling down stay warm for longer, while the
molten paraffin gradually hardens, before losing
warmth. The temperature level of the materials
remains constant.
The predefined temperature is defined as 25°C. PCMs "Sur Falveng" housing for elderly people Domat/Ems, Switzerland The central of three cavities of an 8 cm thick
composite glass element contains a salt hydrate
fill material that functions as a latent heat store
for solar heat and protects the rooms from
overheating. The latent heat store has a thermal
absorption capacity equivalent to a 15 cm thick
concrete wall. The glass panel is transparent
when the fill material has melted and milky-
white when frozen. Air-purifying Indoors 'Pollutants and odours are broken down into their constituent
parts
'Does not replace ventilation, but improves air quality Nanotechnology makes it possible to chemically decompose odours into their harmless
constituent parts. Here the molecules are cracked, giving off steam and carbon dioxide. Air-purifying curtain materials can
simultaneously be equipped with
antibacterial properties
Air-purifying Indoors To function adequately, the air-purifying surface area must be sufficient with regard to the
volume of the room. Only surfaces that are exposed to the air, i.e. those not concealed by
furniture, are relevant. For processes based on oxidative catalysis, normal air circulation is
sufficient. Nicotine or formaldehyde molecules can also be cracked and filtered out of the
indoor air. The European
headquarters of Hyundai
Motors Europe in
Offenbach, Germany, Is
lined with air-purifying
plasterboard panels '' an
interesting combination for
a car manufacturer. Air-purifying Outdoors The air-purifying capacity of photocatalytic concrete
for example provides a possible means of combating
existing pollutants. Applications are air-purifying
paving stones, road surfaces and paints. Depending
on the respective conditions, it was possible to
eradicate between 20% and 80% of airborne
pollutants. Pedestrians walking in the vicinity of
treated walls breathed in fewer airborne pollutants. Air-purifying Atelier and villa for a calligrapher, Ymanashi, Japan By using unvarnished wood and air-purifying building boards that eliminate airborne
contaminants, the architect was able to reduce the problem of poor air. Air-purifying Paving for Leien Boulevard Antwerp, Belgium The paving element, which was not realised for this project, is equipped with further
functionality: with the help of sunlight and oxidative catalysis, it is able to convert
environmental pollutants such as nitrogen oxide into inert nitric acid ions. Air-purifying Jubilee Church Chiesa del Dio Padre Misericordioso Rome, Italy Solar protection 'No blinds necessary.
'Glass darkens automatically or is switchable without the need
for a constant electric current (memory effect).
The advent of nanotechnology has provided a new means of integrating electrochromatic glass
in buildings. The primary difference to the earlier product is that a constant electric current is
no longer necessary
. A single switch is all that is required to change the degree of light
transmission from one state to another (from transparent to darkened).
Photochromatic glass is another solution for darkening glass panels. Here the sunlight itself
causes the glass to darken automatically without any switching. Fire-proof 'Highly efficient fire protection.
'Light and transparent. A thickness of only 3 mm of a functional fill material
between glass panes is sufficient to provide more than 120
minutes of fire resistance against constant exposure to
flames of a temperature of over 1000°C.
The pyrogenic silicic nanoparticles, or nano-silica, are only
7 nm large and due to their relatively large surface area
highly reactive. Depending on the desired duration of fire-
resistance, the highly effective fill material is sandwiched
between one or more panes of glass. The size of the fill
particles can be modified and is given in terms of its
surface area in square metres per gram.
In the event of a fire the nanosilicate forms an opaque
protective layer against the fire, which also protects
against heat radiation. Fire-proof Deutsche Post headquarters Bonn, Germany A fire safety glass with a
particularly slender profile
was selected for the
project Fire-proof Waverley Gate Edinburgh, Scotland High-performance fire safety glass, enhanced with nanotechnology, is used around the
perimeter of the office spaces to ensure the safety of those working inside. Anti-graffiti 'Permeable surfaces with permanent anti-graffiti coating
'Highly hydrophobic and dirt-resistant. They are highly effective and are used to
make building materials water-repellent.
Their extremely hydrophobic properties
mean that graffiti can be removed more
easily with appropriate detergents. Even
porous and highly absorbent materials such
as brick, lime sandstone, concrete and
other similar materials can be protected
efficiently using such nano-based coatings.
Although the coating is effectively an
impregnation, unlike other systems it does
not close the pores of the material, allowing
the material to retain its vapour permeability.The ultra-thin nanocoating
lines the capillary pores without closing
them. Anti-graffiti In addition, the coating also reduces dirt accumulation significantly, making the coating
applicable for use on floor surfaces too.
The effect of the impregnated coating is a result of several layers of molecules. Within the
coating, the self-organisation of the molecules it contains ensures that these are
distributed evenly, stay together and have the same orientation. The upper layer fulfils a
hydrophobic function, with a significantly reduced surface tension and molecular
attraction. The lower layer ensures the entire coating adheres to the substrate it is applied
to. Noise barriers are ideal
candidates for the
use of anti-graffiti
coatings Anti-graffiti New Centre Ulm Ulm, Germany Both buildings have exposed concrete facades
whose clean-cut forms are best appreciated
when the surfaces are equally clean. For this
reason the concrete surfaces have been coated
with a nanoscalar high-tech coating. Such dirt-
repellent anti-graffiti surfaces are well suited
for use in urban environments where the
potential for undesirable defilement is
particularly great. Unsightly damage to
buildings can be avoided as a result. Anti-graffiti Homager Palais Berlin, Germany Its central location attracts
graffiti-sprayers and it is only a
matter of time before the first
graffiti will appear on walls
outdoors. An anti-graffiti coating was applied to guard
against such damage, which
protects the surface without
clogging the capillary pores.
The material itself is still
permeable and able to breath.
Pink stays pink. Anti-reflective 'Improving solar transmission. Transparent nanoscalar surface structures, where the particles are smaller than the
wavelength of visible light, offer not only an innovative but also a cost-effective and
efficient anti-reflective solution. Their structure consists of minute 30-50nm large silicon-
dioxide (SiO2) balls. A single interference layer is applied by dipping the glass or plastic in
the solution and functions across a broadband spectrum of light. The refractive index of
the outer layer is very small and can be defined precisely, as can the thickness of the
oating. A thicknessof 150nm is regarded as ideal.
The ratio of reflected light reduces from 8% to less than 1%. Anti-fingerprint Steel and satin-finish glass surfaces are particularly affected by repeated touching. The
coating alters the refraction of the light in the same way the fingerprint itself does so
that new fingerprints have little effect. The light reflections on the coating make steel or
glass surfaces appear smooth, giving the impression of cleanliness that many users have
come to expect. 'No more visible fingerprints. Functional principle of an anti-fingerprint coating (below) vs. an uncoated surface (above). Costs 1- Nanoparticles for applications are already commercially
available in a wide range of forms that can support a host
of applications.
Materials such as silver (Ag), gold (Au),
aluminum (Al), and iron (Fe) are commonly available, as are
many fundamental forms. A wide array of compounds (such
as tungsten carbide, TiC) and oxides (such as titanium
dioxide, TiO2) are also available
2- Titanium dioxide (TiO2), widely used in its anatase form
for
photocatalytic applications (self-cleaning, antimicrobial), typically ranges from 5 to 20 nm, whereas in
another of its forms (rutile) diameters are often larger (40''
50 nm).
3- Nanoparticles can also come in varying levels of
treatments.
Various nanoparticles can be obtained that, for
example, already have hydrophobic or hydrophilic
properties useful in a wide range of applications.
4- Carbon nanotubes for applications are available in a
wide variety of single-walled (SWNT) and multiwalled
(MWNT) forms, including different lengths, diameters, and
purities.
The holistic applications: Hotel room The holistic applications: hospital room The holistic applications: bank office Conclusions o Nanomaterials are materials made from nanometer-scale substances has opened up
possibilities for new and innovative functions.
o Nanotechnology is disruptive and offers the possibility of great advances whereas
conventional approaches, at best, offer only incremental improvements
o Nanotechnology is the opposite of the traditional top-down process of construction, or indeed
any production technique, and it offers the ability to work from the ''bottom' of materials
design to the ''top' of the built environment.
o Nanomaterials will produce buildings lighter, smaller and more robust which will save in the
cost of construction and saves a flat earth for future generations
oThere are three main issues that might prevent the widespread use of the nanotechnology:
' Lack of vision to identify those aspects that could be changed through its use.
' Lack of skilled personnel.
' Level of investment.
As with most major innovations, there are two principle obstacles to be overcome:
''Develop a sufficiently deep understanding of behavior to establish both the good and the
bad, the benefits and the hazards, of the nanoscale.
''Nanomaterials are expensive and will remain so, at least for some time. Finding ways to
cushion the transition to economic viability needs thought.
References  Leydecker, Sylvia. Nano Materials in Architecture, Interior Architecture
and Design. BirkhauserVerlag AG, 2008.
 Michael F. Ashby, Paulo J. Ferreira, Daniel L. Schodek.
NanoMaterials,NanoTechnologies and Design. An Introduction for Engineers
and Architects,Elsevier Ltd, 2009.
 Ritter, Axel. Smart Materials in architecture, interior architecture and
design. Birkhäuser, Berlin, 2007.
 Johansen John M. Nanoarchitecture: A New Species of Architecture.
Princeton Architectural Press New York, 2002.


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