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Aspetti normativi e applicativi delle tecnologie wireless

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The coexistence management process consists of following phases:
• investigation phase; The investigation aims to ascertain the actualì state in respect of operating wireless applications, and identify free and occupied frequency resources.
• planning phase; In the planning phase, the resource allocation plan is developed or modified based on the updated inventory.
• implementation phase
• operation phase

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SAVE ottobre 2016 Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa

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Veronafiere 19-20 ottobre 2016 Gli atti dei convegni e più di 7.000 contenuti su www.verticale.net Cogenerazione Termotecnica Industriale Pompe di Calore 27 ottobre Cogenerazione Termotecnica Industriale Pompe di Calore Alimentare Alimentare Petrolchimico Alimentare 28 ottobre Alimentare Petrolchimico Alimentare Alimentare Petrolchimico Visione e Tracciabilità 28 ottobre Luce Energia Domotica LED Luce Energia Domotica LED ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 1 SAVE 2016 Aspetti normativi e applicativi delle tecnologie wireless Emiliano Sisinni, Member IEC-TC65 (WG17) and IEC-SC65C (WG16 and WG17) emiliano.sisinni@unibs.it, DII, University of Brescia and CSMT Via Branze, 38, 25123 '' BRESCIA '' Italy, Tel: +39 030 3715445, Fax: +39 030 380014 Raffaele Esposito, membro del CEI TC 65C Coordinatore Gruppo Wireless di ANIE Automazione Product Manager presso Phoenix Contact Spa ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 Why wireless now' ' Wireless isn't new. Why all the recent interest about it' ' Consider what happened with cell phones. Cellular technology was
available for at least a decade before it was widely adopted, but the
large size and short battery life of early phones made them
impractical for most people. Once those problems were solved,
adoption increased exponentially. ' Something similar has happened with wireless technology for
process automation and more recently for factory automation. It
wasn't hard to see the potential benefits, but users were reluctant to
put wireless to work in their plants until concerns about security,
battery life, standards, and communication reliability were
addressed. 2 ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 Why wireless now' ' In recent years, several automation and wireless-technology
suppliers have focused on addressing these and other concerns. As
a result, "industry ready" wireless solutions are increasingly
available. '' Built-in encryption, authentication, verification, key management, anti- jamming, and other security measures can make properly-implemented
wireless networks as secure as many traditional wired ones '' or more
so. '' Advanced power-management techniques, low-power electronics, and energy scavenging technologies help minimize power consumption so
wireless devices can operate for years without battery replacement. '' Self-organizing networks offer unprecedented reliability for wireless field networks, even when changes in the plant environment interfere with
existing transmission paths. '' Emerging industrial standards -- such as those under development by HART Communications Foundation and ISA -- are addressing concerns
about integration and long-term compatibility in wireless field networks. 3 ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 Current WSN Applications ' The most common current WSN applications are process
monitoring, environmental monitoring, and assets/machine health
monitoring. 4 ©2012 ON World Inc. All Rights Reserved All Respondents - Most Common WSN Applications Ranked Process mtrg Process cntrl Factory Automation Assets/Machine health Environ mtrg Safety/security Corrosion mtrg Energy/HVAC Lighting cntrols 6% 19% 15% 11% 10% 18% 19% 15% 23% 5% 19% 15% 11% 10% 14% 15% 12% 13% 9% 15% 9% 15% 15% 14% 13% 16% 10% 18% 8% 9% 20% 19% 11% 11% 8% 8% 40% 7% 7% 10% 17% 7% 2% 8% 6% n=169/216 Least common Most common Ranking Distribution ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 Standards Migration '' Current WSN Protocols Used ' For current WSN adopters''including vendors, suppliers and end
users-- 53% are using WirelessHART followed by WiFi** (36%),
proprietary (32%) and ISA100.11a (28%). 5 ©2012 ON World Inc. All Rights Reserved 53% 36% 32% 28% 14% 14% 12% 13% n= 118/216 Source: ON World WSN Adopters '' Wireless Sensor Network Protocols Used *WSN Adopters= All respondents, including vendors and end users, who are currently using WSN. **Note: The question asked if respondents used WiFi ''for sensing, not just for data networks' but it did not clarify if WiFi is used for
end nodes versus gateways only. ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 Adoption Drivers '' Availability of STANDARDs ' The most commonly named WSN adoption drivers are standards,
education, improving ease of use, performance and lowering
equipment costs. 6 ©2012 ON World Inc. All Rights Reserved Open-Ended Comments on What Will Drive WSN Adoption Comments: ''Less concern about making the vendor's
standards the industry standard as opposed to
the best standard for the application.' ''Upgrade/replacement pathways for legacy
platforms, migration plans for existing
systems.' ''Easy engineering of complex systems, visual
programming of processes.'
''The more plug and play the device can be the
better'' Startups offering $100 WirelessHART sensors
for vibration, VOC, H2S, range/level, etc.' ''Focus on driving down cost by factor of ten.' Standards 21% Education 17% Ease of Use 13% Performance 11% Cost 7% ISA100 4% Certification 4% ZigBee 2% WirelessHART 3% Security 3% Lower Power 3% More Competition 3% Others 9% Source: ON World ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 Monitoring or Control' Type Class Description Safety 0 Critical Control 1 Closed Loop regulatory
control 2 Closed loop
supervisory control 3 Open loop control Monitoring 4 Alerting 5 Data logging and
Up/Download ' Process monitoring '' Hard to reach / expensive to install locations '' Full access to multivariable devices ' Asset Management '' Condition monitoring
'' Configuration database ' Control '' Open loop
'' Closed loop ' Where appropriate for wireless 7 ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 Wireless and Control ' In the wireless world, however, fast updates are not always
practical. Processing and transmitting the data for each update uses
energy, and faster updates therefore use more energy. ' Unless you''re willing to replace batteries every few months or hard-
wire a power source directly to the field device '' eliminating some
key advantages of using wireless technology -- measurement
update rates for wireless devices will typically be less than for wired
systems. 8 Low power Active Corrente Tempo ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 Wireless and Control ' Although devices in a truly wireless network will usually be
configured for update rates of perhaps twice per minute, they are
capable of supporting once-per-second update rates. ' This can be suitable for control in applications where the variable
doesn't change rapidly, such as level and temperature loops or
those that rely on online-analyzer feedback. Some slow and non-
critical flow loops can also be good candidates for wireless-based
control. 9 The key is to understand the requirements
of your process, then determine the right
balance between update rates and battery
life. Time [h] T e mperature [°C] ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 Factory vs Process Automation 10 ' Similar requirements
' but very
different
values (log
graph)! ' There is no ONE-SIZE-
FITS-ALL! ' Nowadays wireless is
most suitable
for PA' 0,01 0,1 1 10 100 1000 Device count per unit Unit Physical Size [m] Units per Plant Device
density
(in unit)
Devices per Plant Production Cycle Length [h] Unit Startup Time [minutes] Time:
fastest [s]
Time:
control
loop [s]
Time:
slowest [s]
Field
Device Cost
[$] Installation
Cost/device
cost Process Automation, Predominantly analog
Discrete Automation, Predominantly discrete 0,1 1 10 100 0,001 0,01 0,1 1 10 10 10 000 10 100 1000 100 10 1 10 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 100 1000 10 1 1000 0.1 10 100 1 ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 European Compliance 11 ' Process for authorising radios in Europe ' The R&TTE Directive ' It''s a ''Declaration of Conformity'' Directive ' The Radio and Telecommunication Terminal Equipment Directive establishes a regulatory framework for placing and putting into
service radio and telecommunications terminal equipment (R&TTE)
on the free market. ' The DoC is to the Directive ' Not a certification to the standard ' Dynamic DoC applies each day to each unit ' Harmonised Standards ' Simple way to ''presume'' compliance with Directive ' Standards are listed in the Official Journal ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 European Compliance 12 ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 ETSI & Wireless 13 ' Specific SRD (Short Range Devices) standards include: '' EN 300 328 Wideband Transmission Systems '' EN 300 422 Wireless Microphones in the 25 MHz to 3 GHz freq. band '' EN 302 510 Ultra Low Power Active Medical Membrane Implants and Accessories '' EN 302 195 Ultra Low Power Active Medical Implants 9 '' 315 kHz '' EN 302 536 Inductive applications in the 315-600 kHz range for animal implant communication. '' EN 302 066 Ultra Wideband (Ground- and Wall-Probing Radar) '' EN 302 208 Radio Frequency Identification '' EN 302 372 Tank Level Probing Radar '' EN 302 858 Narrowband Short Range Radar (24 GHz) '' EN 302 288 UWB Short Range Radar (24 GHz) '' EN 302 264 UWB Short Range Radar (79 GHz) '' EN 301 091 Long Range Radar (76 GHz) ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 EN 300328 v 1.8.1 14 ' This standard regulates the access to 2,4 GHz ISM Band ' Unfortunately: the requirements of automation have not been considered, especially '' The real-time requirements '' Efficient usage of valuable spectrum resource '' Fair sharing of spectrum on different wireless systems ' Sugegsted Wayout: '' Co-existence management IEC 62657-2 '' 10-mW Factory ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 EN 300328 v 1.8.1 15 ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 IEC Standards 16 IEC 65 * Industrial-process measurement, control and
automation
CEI 65 *** Misura , controllo e automazione nei processi industriali Esigenze degli utilizzatori Automazione industriale Punti di vista dei costruttori CENELEC 65X ** *** CEI = Comitato elettrotecnico italiano * * CENELEC = Comité européen de
normalisation en électronique et en
électrotechnique
* IEC = International Electrotechnical Commission ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 IEC standards ' Currently, two WGs of the IEC65C committee are working on the
standardization process for the wireless in industrial applications '' WG16 «Wireless» '' WG17 «Wireless Coexistence» ' The former is in charge of maintaining the three standards currently
ratified: '' WirelessHART, IEC62591 '' ISA100.11a, IEC62734 '' WIA-PA IEC62601 and WIA-FA IEC62948 (chinese solutions, poorly diffused) ' The latter addresses the coexistence challenges '' IEC62657 Part 1: a sort of glossary '' IEC62657 Part 2: operative guidelines 17 ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 18 ' Initiative launched by HCF in November 2004. Standard in September 2007. ' IEC approved (Committee 65C WG 16). ' Objective: Establish a wireless communication standard for process
automation, in particular for IN PLANT applications
' WirelessHART: wireless extension to HART protocol '' An open and interoperable standard
'' As easy as using wired HART (they share upper layers)
'' Enable wireless access to existing HART devices
'' Use the same configuration, maintenance, diagnostic tools and procedures '' Require little additional training The WirelessHART role ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 19 Wireless Access to Additional Process Measurements Minimal Installation Cost - No Wires Wireless Gateway Connection to Plant Systems Battery, Solar or Field Powered Devices The WirelessHART role : enable new class of devices A brand new wireless fieldbus and wireless devices! ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 20 ' What is the ISA100 Committee' ' The ISA100 committee is part of ISA and was formed in 2005 to establish standards and related information that will define
procedures for implementing wireless systems in the automation
and control environment with a focus on the field level. ' The committee is made up of over 400 automation professionals from nearly 250 companies around the world with a variety of industrial
backgrounds ' ISA100: Family of Standards, designed to Accommodate all the Plant Needs. Areas of Coverage Identified: to date; ' Process Automation (Process Focus),
' Factory Automation (Discrete Focus),
' Transmission and Distribution (Long Distance Focus),
' RFID (Industrial Tagging Focus) The ISA100.11a role ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 The ISA100.11a role ' This standard defines all specifications including security and
management; for wireless devices serving application classes 1
through 5 for fixed, portable and moving devices. ' The ISA100.11a standard addresses performance needs for
periodic monitoring and process control where latencies on the order
of 0,1-1,0 s can be tolerated (with optional behavior for shorter
latency). ' Scope of this standard: 21 ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 Network components ' Any network, whether wired or wireless, requires a transmission
source to send a signal, a medium to carry the signal, and a receiver
to accept the signal and do something with the information. ' In the process automation world, this has traditionally meant field
devices sending data over cables to a host system such as a DCS
or PLC. 22 ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 Network components ' Wireless networks use radio waves rather than cables for data
transmission, requiring some changes in network components '' like
adding radios and antennas. ' The components of a wireless network can be roughly divide into: '' wireless field devices, which collect and transmit data '' gateways, which provide an interface between the wireless devices and the host system '' host systems, which receive and manage the information from the wireless network 23 ' Other components can be handheld
communicators, PDAs, and tablet
PCs used by mobile workers to
wirelessly access process control
networks. ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 Look inside a wireless sensor node ' Sensing '' Measures information about physical phenomenon '' Converts to digital representation ' Processing '' Analyzes and processes sensor data '' Handles communication ' Communication '' Provides wireless interface '' RF transceiver and antenna ' Hardware '' Low-power microprocessor '' Limited resources (CPU speed, RAM, storage) 24 Wireless Sensor Sensing Processing Communication ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 THE IEC62657-2 ' Coexistence: '' is a dynamic state within an environment (not a characteristic of a wireless solution) '' means that all wireless solutions involved fulfil their tasks '' depends on the requirements of the application and the resulting wireless solution '' can be assessed using characteristic parameters '' has to be planned, monitored and maintained 25 ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 THE IEC62657-2 ' The std specifies sets of parameters that characterize the model of a
network or device. ' The std also describes the characterization of wireless communication
solutions which are implementations of wireless communication
systems and devices. ' In contrast to the description of network and devices types, here the
parameter values refer to a certain installation within a plant. 26 ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 THE IEC62657-2 ' The coexistence management process consists of following phases: ' investigation phase; The investigation aims to ascertain the actual
state in respect of operating wireless applications, and identify free
and occupied frequency resources. ' planning phase; In the planning phase, the resource allocation plan
is developed or modified based on the updated inventory. ' implementation phase ' operation phase ' For effective control of the coexistence management process, a central responsibility is
required. For this purpose, one or more central contact persons (coexistence managers)
shall be assigned. ' A coexistence manager shall have basic knowledge of radio technologies and
associated radio compatibilities. ' A specialist knowledge is required to promote qualified decisions regarding the use of
wireless applications which involve considerable risks. If a coexistence manager does
not have the specialist knowledge, he shall be assisted by a radio expert. 27 ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 Esempi applicativi 28 ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 Esempi applicativi 29 ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 Esempi applicativi 30 ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 Esempi applicativi 31 ''Wireless, gli standard ed alcune applicazioni di importanza significativa' '' SAVE16 32 Questions' Comments'


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